El col·lapse d’una estrella pot originar un Forat Negre

Cada segon una estrella en algún lloc de l’univers, es converteix en una supernova. No obstant això, algunes estrelles súper massives agonitzen com un sospir, enlloc de formar una gran explosió. Quan ho fan, poden col·lapsar degut a l’atracció de la gravetat i desaparèixer de la nostra visió, formant un forat negre.

L’estrella condemnada, anomenada N6946-BH1, era 25 vegades més masiva que el nostre Sol. Va començar a il·luminar dèbilment l’any 2009. No obstant això, l’any 2015 va deixar de ser observada. Per un acurat mètode d’observacions fetes amb el Telescopi Binocular i els telescopis espacials Hubble i Spitzer, els investigadors han arribat a la conclusió que, finalment l’estrella es va convertir en un forat negre.

Aquest pot ser el destí de les estrelles més massives de l’univers.

Aquesta “fallida masiva”, situada en una galàxia propera, podría explicar per què els astrònoms poden observar les supernoves de les estrelles més massives, ha comentat en Christopher Kochanek, profesor d’astronomia de la Universitat Estatal d’Ohio.

Fins a uns 30 per cent d’aquest tipus d’estrelles, pel que sembla, poden col·lapsar en silenci formant forats negres, sense passar per l’etapa de supernova.

Entre les galàxies que han estat observades, figura la NGC 6946, una galàxia espiral situada a uns 22 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres, coneguda amb el sobrenom de “galàxia dels focs artificials”, perquè en aquella galàxia ocorren supernoves amb molta freqüència. De fet l’última observada, SN 2017eaw, va ser descoberta el 14 de maig de 2017, està brillant amb la máxima brillantor ara mateix.

Segons ha comentat Stanek, no és necessari que un estel massiu, és converteixi en una supernova, expulsant cap enfora les seves capes exteriors, però que encara tenen prou massa sobrant per formar un massiu forat negre en el seu interior.

Aquesta representació artística, ens mostra les etapes finals d’una estrella supermassiva que no acaba d’explotar, sinó que implosiona sota la seva propia gravetat per formar un forat negre.

D’esquerra a dreta: l’estrella masiva ha evolucionat a una supergegant vermella, l’embolcall de l’estrella és expulsat i s’expandeix, produint una Font transitòria freda, l’embolcall vermell acaba caient dins del forat negre.

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