El Hubble troba les primeres molècules orgàniques en un planeta extrasolar.

L’empremta  de la molècula del metà, ha estat localitzada en una atmosfera d’un planeta extrasolar de la grandària de Júpiter, anomenat HD 189733b, a través del Telescopi Espacial Hubble.

En circumstàncies normals, el metà pot jugar un paper clau en la química prebiòtica, que són les reaccions químiques considerades necessàries per formar la vida tal com la coneixem. Encara que el metà, s’ha detectat en la majoria dels planetes del Sistema Solar, aquesta és la primera vegada que és descobreix en un món que orbita en una altre estrella.

Aquesta descoberta, demostra que el Hubble i el seu succesor el James Webb, podran detectar molècules orgàniques,en planetes al voltant d’altres estrelles, utilitzant l’espectroscòpia. D’aquesta manera conèixer les seves “empremtes digitals”, que formen els diversos productes químics.

“Aquest és un pas crucial, conèixer les molècules prebiòtiques ens mostrarà on pot exisitr la vida”, comenta en Mark Swain del Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) de Pasadena (Estats Units), responsable del equip de recerda d’aquest descobriment.

Aquesta descoberta arriba després de les extenses observacions fetes el maig del 2007, amb la Càmera d’Infraroig Proper i l’Espectròmetre de Mutiobjectes (NICMOS) a bord del Hubble. Així mateix confirma l’existència de molècules de vapor d’aigua, descobert abans pel Telescopi Espacial Spitzer. “Amb aquesta descoberta, no hi ha cap dubte de la presència d’aigua”, comenta en Swain.

El planeta HD 189733b, del que ara coneixem la presència de metà i vapor d’aigua, està situat a 63 anys llum de la Terra, dins de la constel·lació de Vulpecula. HD 189733b, és un “Júpiter calent”, és així, degut a que orbita al voltant de la seva estrella en tan sols dos dies. La temperatura de la seva atmosfera, està al voltant dels 900º C, es a dir la mateixa de la fusió de l’argent.

Les observacions d’aquest planeta, s’han fet amb el mètode del transit, es a dir, s’ha observat el planeta durant el pas per davant de la seva estrella, i d’aquesta manera s’ha observat les seves signatures espectrals a través del Hubble.

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