Arxiu per Febrer, 2016

El resplendor del Big Bang, permet detectar un llunyà jet d’un forat negre.

Un lluminós i llunyà raig de llum (o jet) que prové del resplendor de les restes del Big Bang, conegut com la radiació cósmica de fons (CMB), han localitzat uns astrònoms que utilitzen l’Observatori de raigs X Chandra de la NASA i que han descobert aquest llunyà jet per casualitat quan observaven un altre font de llum del camp de visió del Chandra.

Aquest jet observat en un univers primerenc, s’ha identificat com B3 0727 +409, on els astrònoms l’han identificat com un creixement de forats negres en una época primerenca del cosmos. La llum de B3 0727 +409, és va emetre al voltant de 2.700 milions d’anys després del Big Bang, quan l’univers tenia només una cinquena part de la seva edat actual.

Aquesta imatge , ens mostra les dades de raigs X (en color blau) que s’han combinat en una imatge òptica del Digitized Sky Survey. Cal comentar que les dues fonts aparentment properes no tenen rés a veure entre elles, sinó que més aviat és una coincidencia d’alineació del llunyà jet, amb una galàxia situada més a prop de nosaltres.

Les dades indiquen que l’emissió de raigs X, que ha detectat el Chandra, tenen unes dimensions aproximades de 300.000 anys llum.

Els científics creuen que a mesura que els electrons del jet surten del forat negre, a una velocitat propera a la llum, es mouen a través d’un mar de radiació del CMB i xoquen amb els fotons de micrones. Això augmenta l’energia dels fotons al rang dels raigs X, que són els detectats pel Chandra.

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Una raresa galàctica al descobert.

Un equip internacional d’investigadors dirigit per Aaron Romanowsky, membre de la San Jose State University, utilitzant el Telescopi Subaru, han identificat una galàxia nana quasi bé imperceptible, situada al voltant d’una galàxia espiral gegant. Les observacions proporcionen una valuosa visió d’un procés que és “ràpid”, però important en la formació de les galàxies.

“Les regions exteriors de les galàxies gegants com la nostra propia Via Làctia, semblen un poti-poti de runa de centenars de galàxies més petites, que és van unir en el transcurs del temps i van formar estructures més grans, però l’evidència que les grans absorbeixen les més petites, ha estat en gran mesura circunstancial. Ara hem observat un parell de galàxies en el momento d’una abraçada mortal”.

La galàxia espiral gegant NGC 253 (es mostra en color), s’acompanya d’una nana acabada de descubrir, NGC 253-DW2 (a dalt a l’esquerra). La peculiar forma allargada de la nana implica que està sent esquinçada per la gravetat de la galàxia més gran, que al seu torn mostra irregularitats en la seva perifèria, que poden ser causades per la interacció mútua.

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Un gegantí núvol de gas, com un bumerang retorna a la nostra galàxia.

Astrònoms del telescopi espacial Hubble, han descobert que la vella dita, “tot el que puja, ha de baixar”, s’aplica fins i tot a un immens núvol de gas d’hidrogen, situat fora de la nostra Via Làctia. El núvol invisible s’està acostant en picat a una velocitat de prop de 1,2 milions de quilòmetres per hora.

Dels centenars de núvols de gas situats al voltant de la nostra galàxia, en la regió anomenada “Núvol d’Smith”, és l’únic amb una òrbita coneguda. Les noves observacions del Hubble, suggereixen que va ser llançat des de les regions externes del disc galàctic, fa uns 70 milions d’anys. El núvol va ser descobert en la década de 1960, per l’estudiant en doctorat d’astronomia, Gail Smith, el qual en va detectar les ones de ràdio emeses per l’hidrogen.

El núvol està en direcció de retorn i s’espera que fregarà el disc de la Via Làctia en uns 30 milions d’anys. Quan ho faci, els astrònoms creuen que encendra una espectacular explosió de formació estel·lar, potser proporcionarà el gas suficient per fer néixer uns 2 milions de sols.

“El núvol és un exemple de com la galàxia està canviant amb el pas del temps”, ha comentat el responsable de l’equip de recerca, Andrew Fox, membre del Institut de Ciència del Telescopi Espacial Hubble, situat a Baltimore. “Ens està dient que la Via Làctia, és com una bombolla molt activa on el gas pot ser expulsat d’una part del disc i després retornar en una altre direcció”.

“La nostra galàxia està reciclant el seu gas a través dels núvols , el que en aquest cas, el Núvol d’Smith, és un exemple, formant estrelles en diferents llocs. Els mesuraments del Hubble, del Núvol d’Smith, ens ajuden a visualitzar l’activa forma dels discos galàctics”, ha comentat l’Andrew Fox.

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