Arxiu per Gener, 2016

El naixement d’un quàsar turbulent.

La galàia més lluminosa coneguda a l’univers, és el quásar W2246-0526, la qual s’ha observat tal com l’univers tenia menys del 10% de la seva edat actual. El quásar està en un estat tan turbulent que està expulsant la totalitat del seu subministrament de gas per la formació d’estrelles, segons les observacions fetes amb l’Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA).

Els quàsars són galàxies llunyanes amb nuclis molt actius i forats negres supermassius situats en el seus interiors, que llancen poderosos raigs de partícules i radiació. La majoria dels quàsars brillen intensament, però una petita fracció d’aquests energètics objectes són d’un tipus inusuals, coneguts popularment com “hot dogs”, galàxies enfosquides per la pols, com per exemple la galàxia WISE J224607.57-52635.0, la més lluminosa de les galàxies conegudes a l’univers.

Per primera vegada, un equip d’investigadors liderat per Tanio Diaz-Santos, membre de la Universitat Diego Portales de Santiago de Xile, ha utilitzat les extraordinàries prestacions tècniques de l’ALMA per observar aquest objecte i rastrejar el moviment dels àtoms de carboni ionitzat situats entre les estrelles d’aquesta galàia.

“No es van trovar grans quantitats d’aquest material interestel·lar, tot i estar en un ambient molt turbulent dinàmic al llarg de tota la galàxia, tot i que aquesta té un moviment de rotació de prop de dos milions de quilòmetres per hora”.

Els astrònoms creuen que aquest comportament podría estar relacionat amb l’extrema lluminositat de la galàxia, que correspon a una massa equivalent a 350 bilions de sols. Aquesta sorprenent brillantor, està impulsada per un disc de gas que està sobreescalfat i que es mou en espiral al voltant d’un forat negre supermassiu situat en el centre de la galàxia.

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Els grans observatoris de la NASA pesen un jove i massiu cúmul galàctic.

Uns astrònoms han fet la recerca més detallada d’un jove i extremadament massiu cúmul de galàxies, utilitzant tres dels Grans Observatoris de la NASA. La imatge que podem observar és un recull de múltiples longituds d’ona que mostra el cúmul galàctic anomenat IDCS J1426.5+3508 (IDCS J1426 per abreujar), en raigs X i color blau observat per l’Observatori Chandra, en llum visible i color verd pel Telescopi Hubble i en llum infraroja i color vermell pel Telescopi Espacial Spitzer.

Aquest rar cúmul de galàxies. que és trova a uns 10.000 milions d’anys llum de la Terra, té una massa equivalent a uns 500 bilions de sols. Aquest objecte té importants implicacions per entendre com aquestes mega-estructures es van formar i evolucionen des de principis de l’univers. Els astrònoms han observat IDCS J1426, tal com era quan l’univers tenia menys d’un terç de la seva edat actual. És el cúmul de galàxies més massiu observat en una edat tan primerenca.

Va ser descobert l’any 2012 pel Telescopi Espacial Spitzer, IDCS J14126 va ser observat posteriorment pel Telescopi Espacial Hubble i l’Observatori Keck per tal de determinar la seva distància. Les observacions del Combined Array Millimeter Wave Astronomy van indicar que era molt massiu. Les noves dades del Chandra, confirmaven la massa del cúmul i mostren que al voltant del 90% de la seva massa es trova en forma de matèria fosca, la misteriosa substància que fins el moment s’ha detecta només a través de la seva força gravitatòria per damunt de la matèria composta d’àtoms.

Hi ha una brillant regió d’emissió de raigs X (observat en color blau), d’una mida semblant a la meitat del mateix cúmul, però que no està situat exactament en el centre. La ubicació d’aquest “nucli” de gas suggereix que el cúmul ha tingut una col·lisió o interacció amb algun altre sistema massiu de galàxies, relativament poc temps abans, probablement uns 500 milions d’anys abans.

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Una regió buida de pols, ens indica la presència de planetes gegants al voltant d’estrelles semblants al Sol.

TW Hydrae (TW Hya), és una de les estrelles joves millor estudiades de la nostra galaxia. Situada a uns 180 anys llum de nosaltres, aquesta jove estrella de només 8 milions d’anys, disposa d’una massa semblant a la del nostre Sol. Alhora que en la seva òrbita, s’ha observat un disc circumestel·lar de pols i gas, que forma part de l’estudi per entendre millor els procesos involucrats en la formació estel·lar i planetària.

Els sistemes més precisos dels telescopis, tenen accés a longituds d’ona  des del ràdio , fins als raigs X i que permeten observar el sistema TW Hya. Els astrònoms han utilitzat el Gemini Planet Imager (GPI) situat en el Gemini Sud Observatory, per observar en radiació infraroja aquesta estrella, que és dispersada per les partícules de pols situades en el seu disc circumdant.

Les noves imatges del GPI, confirmen la presencia d’un anell, o regió buida de pols, situada a unes 23 unitats astronòmiques (UA), és a dir unes 23 vegades la distància entre el Sol i la Terra. L’estudi de simulacions numèriques detallalles dels planetes que es formen en discos circumestel·lars, indiquen una estructura a unes 5 UA, que podría estar generada per un planeta amb una massa semblant a Júpiter, en una òrbita equivalent a la d’Urà en el nostre Sistema Solar.

“Les dades del GPI , revelen el testimoni d’una estructura de disc en una regió gegant de formació planetària situada al voltant de TW Hya, en la resolució més alta conseguida fins ara en altres instruments”, ha comentat el Dr. Valerie Rapson, membre del Rochester Institute of Technology. “Els resultats ens ajudaran a reconstruir la historia de com es formen els planetes gegants , situats al voltant d’estrelles similars al Sol”.

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