Arxiu per Novembre, 2014

Recerca del Hubble de regions de runa d’exoplanetes.

Astrònoms que utilitzen el Telescopi Espacial Hubble de la NASA, han completat la recerca més amplia d’imatges en llum visible, de discos polsegosos de runa situats al voltant d’altres estrelles. Aquests discos de pols, creats probablement per les col·lisions entre les restes de cossos sobrés que varen formar els planetes, Les imatges es van obtener a l’entorn d’estrelles tan joves com de només 10 milions d’anys, o d’altres amb una edat aproximada de 1.000 milions d’anys.

“Es com mirar enrere en el temps i observar el tipus d’esdeveniments destructius que van succeir una vegada s’havien format els planetes en el nostre Sistema Solar”, ha comentat en Glenn Schneider, membre de la Universitat d’Arizona.

Una vegada que es creu que les estructures s’han format, la inesperada diversitat i complexitat d’aquestes runes polsegoses, suggereixen que están sent afectades per l’acció gravitacional dels planetes invisibles al telescopi i que orbiten a les estrelles.

Els investigadors van descubrir que no hi ha dos “discs” de material envoltant a estrelles del mateix aspecto. “Trobem que els sistemes no són simplement llisos amb superficies uniformes”, ha comentat Schneider. “Es tracta de sistemes de runa tridimensionals realment força complexos, sovint amb estructures més petites incrustades. Algunes de les subestructures podrien ser els senyals dels planetes invisibles”.

Irregularitats observades en un anell, en particular d’una estrella anomenada HD 181327, s’assemblen a l’ejecció d’una enorme polvorització de runes a la regió exterior del sistema de recent creació, per la col·lisió de dos cossos.

“Aquesta regió de materia està força allunyada de la seva estrella, aproximadament el doble de la distancia entre el Sol i Plutó”, ha comentat el co-director de la recerca, en Christopher Stark, membre del Centre Espacial Goddard de la NASA.

Una altre interpretació de les irregularitats d’aquest disc, podría ser el posible pas d’una estrella, deformant la regió de pols, interactuant directament amb el material interestel·lar invisible.

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MUSE ens mostra la verdadera història que s’amaga darrere una topada galàctica

MUSE, el nou instrument del VLT (Very Large Telescope) de l’ESO, ha proporcionat als investigadors la millor panorámica d’un espectacular accident còsmic. Les noves observacions ens mostren per primera vegada, el moviment del gas a mesura que és arrancat i sonsumit de la galàxia ESO 137-001, a una gran velocitat per un gran cúmul de galàxies. Els resultats són la clau per solucionar un antic misteri; per qué es desactiva la formació estel·lar en els cúmuls galàctics.

L’equip de recerca, dirigit per Michele Fumagalli, membre del Grup d’Astronomia Extragalàctica i de l’Institut de Cosmología Computacional de la Universitat de Durham, han estat dels primers en utilitzat el MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) de l’ESO, instal·lat en el VLT. Observant a ESO 137-001, una galàxia  espiral que és trova a una distancia de 200 milions d’anys llum, en la constel·lació austral de Triangulum Australe, han estat capaços d’obtenir les millors imatges fins ara del moment que estaba succeint en la galàxia , a mesura que és pricipita dins del cúmul de Norma.

MUSE ofereix als astrònoms, no només una imatge, si no que també l’espectre de cada píxel de la imatge. Amb aquest instrument, els investigadors obtenen uns 90.000 espectres cada vegada que observen un objecte, aconseguint un mapa assombrosament detallat dels moviments i altres propietats dels objectes observats.

A ESO 137-001 l’hi estant prenent la seva materia mitjançant un procés anomenat “arrossegament per pressió cinètica” que succeeix quan un objecte és mou a gran velocitat a través d’un líquid o un gas. Un símil podría ser com l’aire que tira enrere el pel d’un gos, quan aquest treu el cap per la finestra d’un vehicle en moviment. En aquest cas, el gas en forma d’una fina capa, forma un enorme núvol calent que envolta al cúmul de galàxies, en el cas que esta caient EO 137-001, a alguns milions de quilòmetres per hora.

La galàxia està perdent la major part del seu gas, el combustible necessari per fabricar la propera generació de joves estrelles blaves. ESO 137-001, està en un medi de transformació galáctica i de ser una galàxia blava, rica en gas, s’està convertint en una galàxia  vermella sense gairebé gas. Els científics creuen que aquest procés ajudarà a resoldre aquest antic enigma científic.

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Una roda galàctica brillant en infraroig.

Podria semblar una roda amb radis o fins i tot una arma “Chakram” dels guerrers “Xema” de la sèrie de ciencia ficció de televisió, però en realitat aquesta galaàxia anellada,  un gran lloc de vida estel·lar. Aquesta nova imatge enregistrada pel Telescopi Espacial Spitzer de la NASA, ens mostra la galàxia NGC 1291. Tot i que la galàxia és força vella, aproximadament uns 12.000 milions d’anys, és caracterítza per un inusual anell on brillen estrelles nounades.

“La resta de la galàxia es força antiga”, ha comentat Kartik Sheth, membre del National Radio Astronomy Observatory de Charlottesville. “Però l’anell exterior es molt jove i ara s’està il·luminant amb les noves estrelles”.

NGC 1291 és trova a uns 33 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres, en la constel·lació d’Eridanus. Es el que coneixem com una galàxia barrada, ja que la seva regió central està dominada per una llarga barra d’estrelles (en la imatge es trova dins del cercle blau i s’assembla a una lletra “S”).

La barra es va anant formant durant la mateixa evolució de la galàxia. Desplaça el material al seu voltant, forçant estrelles i gas en unes òrbites circulars i d’altres exteriors més allargades. Això genera ressonàncies, regions on el gas es comprimeix i desenvolupa noves regions estel·lars. La nostra pròpia galàxia, la Via Làctia també disposa d’una barra central, encara que no tan important com NGC 1291.

Sheth i els seus col·legues están estudiant la manera com les barres centrals donen forma a l’evolució de les mateixes galàxies . Dins de la recerca anomenada Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies, o S4G l’equip de recerca ha analitzat les estructures de més de 3.000 galàxies del nostre veïnat galàctic. La galàxia més llunyana d’aquesta recerca és trova a uns 120 milions d’anys llum, molt a prop de nosaltres en termes relatius.

Els astrònoms están documentant les característiques estructurals, incloent-hi les barres. Volen saber quantes galàxies properes disposen d’aquestes estructures, així com les condicions ambientals d’una galàxia poden influir en la formació d’aquestes estructures.

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LObservatori Chandra, identifica un caos de naixement còsmic en els cúmuls galàctics de Perseus i Virgo.

Aquestes dues imatges dels cúmuls galàctics coneguts com Perseus i Virgo, han proporcionat l’evidència de com  la turbulencia està ajudant a aturar la formació estel·lar. Aquests nous resultats podrien respondre a un llarg misteri, de com aquests cúmuls de galàxies mantenen les seves enormes reserves de gas calent i és refreden alhora per formar estrelles.

Els cúmuls galàctics són els objectes més grans de l’univers units per la gravetat. Ells contenen centenars o milers de galàxies, que están immerses dins del gas amb temperatures de milions de graus. Aquest gas calent, és el component bàsic d’aquests cúmuls de galàxies a part de la materia fosca i que brilla intensament en radiació X. Amb el temps, a l’interior dels cúmuls, el gas es refreda prou  com per formar estrelles a un ritme prodigios. Això, però no és el que han observat els astrònoms en molts d’aquests cúmuls de galàxies.

Un equip d’investigadors ha trobat proves que la calor és genera pels turbulents moviments que han identificat a partir dels senyals obtinguts pel Chandra. Anteriorment, altres científics havien demostrat l’important paper dels forats negres supermassius, situats en els centres de les grans galàxies, situades en els centres dels cúmuls galàctics. Aquests forats negres envíen grans quantitats d’energia al voltant d’ells, a través de potents dolls de partícules energètiques. Chandra i altres telescopis de raigs X han detectat cavitats gegants creades en el gas calent dels cúmuls per aquests raigs.

Les últimes investigacions donen una idea de fins a quin punt l’energia pot ser transferida de les cavitats del gas circumdant. La interacció de les cavitats amb el gas pot ser la generació d’aquesta turbuñència, o moviment caòtic semblant a un viatge accidentat en avió, que després és dissipa per mantener el gas calent durant milers de milions d’anys.

Els científics han observat Perseus i Virgo, ja que són extremadament grans i relativament brillants, proporcionant així una oportunitat per observar els detalls que serien molt difícils de detectar en altres cúmuls.

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