Arxiu per Octubre, 2014

Descobertes dues famílies de cometes al voltant d’una estrella propera.

L’instrument HARPS, que està situat a l’Observatori de La Silla  a Xile, s’ha utilitzat per fer el cens més complert fins ara, de cometes situats al voltant d’una altre estrella. Un equip d’astrònoms francesos, ha estudiat quasi 500 cometes individuals orbitant l’estrella Beta Pictoris i ha descobert que pertanyen a dues famílies diferents d’exocometes: excometes vells que han passat nombroses vegades a prop de l’estrella i exocometes més joves que, probablement , provenien d’un recent trencament d’un o més objectes de major grandària.

Beta Pictoris, és una jove estrella situada a uns 63 anys llum de la Terra. Té només uns 20 milions d’anys i està envoltada per un enorme disc de material, un jove sistema planetari molt actiu on es produeix gas i pols a partir de l’evaporació de cometes i col·lisions d’asteroides.

Flavien Kiefer, principal responsable  d’aquesta recerca, ens comenta, “Beta Pictoris és un interessantíssim objecte d’estudi!. Les detallades observacions dels seus exocometes ens proporcionen pistes per ajudar-nos a comprendre els processos que tenen que tenen lloc en aquest lloc en aquest tipus de jove sistema planetari”, Durant quasi bé 30 anys, els astrònoms han observat subtils canvis de llum que provenien de Beta Pictoris, assumint que aquests canvis es devien al pas de cometes davant de la propia estrella. Els cometes són cossos petits, de pocs quilòmetres de grandària, però amb molt de gel, que s’evapora quan s’acosta a la seva estrella, produint enormes cues de gas i pols que poden absorbir una part de la llum que passa a a través d’elles. La tènue llum dels exocometes es quasi bé imperceptible, fonent-se amb la brillant llum de la mateixa estrella, de manera que no els podem observar directament des de la Terra.

Per estudiar els exocometes de Beta Pictoris, l’equip de recerca ha analitzat més de 1.000 observacions obtingudes entre els anys 2003 i 2011, amb l’instrument HARPS, instal·lat en el telescopi ESO de 3,6 metres de diàmetre.

Els investigadors van seleccionar una mostra de 493 exocometes diferents. Alguns exocometes es van observar varies vegades durant algunes hores. Després d’un anàlisi precís, és van obtenir mesures de velocitat i la grandària dels núvols de gas. També es va poder deduir algunes de les propietats orbitals de cadascun d’aquests cometes, com són la seva forma , orientació i  distancia a l’estrella.

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El Hubble detecta una galàxia extremadament llunyana a través d’una lupa còsmica.

Observant com si fos una gegant lupa cósmica, el Telescopi Espacial Hubble de la NASA, ha detectat una de les més llunyanes, petites i febles galàxies observades fins ara. El diminut objecte s’estima que es trova a una distancia de més de 13.000 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres.

Aquesta nova observació és considera una de les més fiables, en la mesura de la distancia situada en els  inicis de l’univers,  han comentat els investigadors del Hubble. Per aquesta recerca, han utilitzat dos mètodes independents per calcular la seva distància.

La galaxia apareix com una petita bombolla que és només una petita fracció de la nostra galàxia, la Via Làctia. Però ofereix una nova visió en un moment on l’univers tenia només uns 500 milions d’anys, més o menys el 3 per cent de la seva edat actual, estimada en uns 13.700 milions d’anys. Els astrònoms han descobert prop de 10 altres candidates de galàxies en aquesta época primerenca. Però aquesta, és de moment la més petita i feble de les observades fina ara.

“Aquest objecte és un exemple  únic del que és sospita que és una abundant i subjacent població de galàxies molt petites i tènues situades en una época de 500 milions d’anys després del Big Bang”, ha comentat l’Adi Zitrin, responsable d’aquesta recerca i membre de l’Institut Tecnològic de Califòrnia a Pasadena. “El descobriment ens diu que hi ha galàxies tan febles com aquesta i que continuant la recerca d’aquests objectes, podrem entendre com les galàxies a l’univers han evolucionat amb el temps”.

Aquest descobriment, s’ha pogut realizar gràcies a la lent gravitatòria del cúmul Abell 2744, anomenat Cúmul de Pandora, el qual va augmentar la brillantor d’aquesta galaxia en un factor de tres vegades, observant-la 10 vegades més gran i brillant de com l’hauríem observat sense l’ajut d’aquesta lent gravitatòria.

L’anàlisi ens indica que aquesta galàxia mesura només uns 850 anys llum de diàmetre, és unes 500 vegades més petita que la Via Làctia, amb només uns 40 milions d’estrelles. La taxa de formació d’estrelles de la galaxia esta al voltant d’una estrella cada tres anys ,un terç de la taxa de formació estel·lar de la Via Làctia.

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Cromodinàmica galàctica.

Aquesta acolorida imatge s’assembla a una pintura abstracta, o tal vegada a una vidriera contemporània. Però, en realitat, és una insual visió d’una galaxia enregistrada amb el nou instrument MUSE, instal·lat en el Very Large Telescope de l’ESO.

En les imatges astronòmiques, generalment els colors es relacionen amb el color real de l’objecte . Ara bé, en aquesta imatge, els colors representen el moviment de les estrelles que formen la galaxia el·líptica gegant Messier 87, una de les més brillants del Cúmul de Virgo, que és troba a uns 50 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres.

En la imatge, el color vermell indica que, de promig, les estrelles en aquella regió de la galaxia s’allunyen de nosaltres, mentre que el color blau, indica que s’acosten. El color groc i verd ens indiquen velocitats mitges.

Aquest nou mapa de Messier 87, obtinguda amb el MUSE, ens mostra aquestes tendències amb més claredat. Ens mostra una lenta rotació d’aquest enorme objecte, la part superior Esquerra (en blau) s’acosta a nosaltres i la part inferior dreta (en vermell) s’allunya. També ens mostra algunes característiques inesperades, per exemple, la inversió de colors en el centre de la imatge, blavós en la regió que es trova a sota del centre i groc-ataronjat en la regió superior, el que suggereix que Messier 87, va poder tenir un passat més dramàtic del que creiem fins ara i  per tan, pot ser el resultat de la fusió de dues galàxies.

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El Hubble mostra un mapa de temperatura i vapor d’aigua d’un exoplaneta extrem.

Un equip de científics utilitzant el Telescopi Espacial Hubble de la NASA, han fet el mapa global més detallat fins ara, de la llum d’un planeta que orbita a una altre estrella, mostrant els secrets de les temperaturas de l’aire i de l’aigua.

El mapa proporciona informació respecte les temperatures en diferents capes de l’atmosfera global i rastreja la quantitat i distribució del vapor d’aigua del planeta. Els resultats tenen implicacions per la comprensió de la dinámica atmosférica i la formació de planetes gegants com Júpiter.

“Aquestes mesures han obert la porta a un nou tipus de planetologia comparativa”, ha comentat el responsable de l’equip de recerca, en Jacob Bean, membre de la Universitat de Chicago.

“Les nostres observacions són les primeres de la seva clase, en termes de proporcionar un mapa bidimensional de l’estructura  térmica del planeta, que és pot utilizar per a restringir la circulació atmosférica i els models dinàmics per exoplanetes calents”, ha comentat el membre de l’equip de recerca en Kevin Stevenson.

Les observacions del Hubble, mostren que el planeta anomenat WASP-43b és un món d’extrems, on els vents bullents bufen a velocitats properes al so en el costat diürn que és trova a uns 1650 graus Celsius, prou calent com per fondre l’acer, mentre que a l’hemisferi nocturn, les temperatures és desplomen fins els 500 graus Celsius.

Com una bola calenta on predomina el gas hidrogen, no s’observen diferéncies en la seva superfície, com podrien ser oceans o continents, que és puguin utilizar per mesurar la seva rotació. Només la diferència de la temperatura entre els dos costats del dia i la nit, es poden utilizar per indicar aquesta rotació.

WASP-43b és trova a una distancia d’uns 260 anys llum de nosaltres i va ser descobert l’any 2011, aquest planeta està massa lluny per ser fotografiat, però degut que la seva posició en l’orbita pot ser observat en intervals regulars de la caigua de la llum de la seva estrella, al pasar per davant.

El planeta té aproximadament la mateixa grandària que Júpiter, però és el doble de massiu. El planeta està tan a prop de la seva estrella, una nana taronja, que completa una òrbita en només 19 hores. El planeta també està lligat gravitacionalment enfront de l’estrella, mostrant sempre el mateix hemisferi, com la Lluna a la Terra.

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ALMA ens demostra els violents orígens de les galàxies de disc.

Durant dècades, els científics havien cregut que les fusions de les galàxies acostumaven a formar galàxies el·líptiques. Ara, per primera vegada, utilitzant l’ALMA, així com d’altres radiotelescopis, els investigadors han observar evidències directes, on la fusió de galàxies pot formar galàxies de disc i que aquest resultat , és en realitat molt comú. Aquest sorprenent descobriment, podría explicar per què hi ha tantes galàxies espirals com la nostra Via Làctia a l’univers.

Un equip internacionals de recerca, dirigit per Junko Ueda, investigador de la Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, ha fet el sorprenent descobriment en observar que la majoria de les col·lisions de galàxies situades en un univers proper ( a una distancia entre 40 i 600 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres), formen galàxies de disc. Les galàxies de disc, incloent-t’hi les espirals com la Via Làctia o les lenticulars, és defineixen per regions en forma de rosca formades per pols i gas i alhora són diferents de la categoría de les galàxies el·líptiques.

Durant algún temps, va ser àmpliament acceptada que la fusió de galàxies de disc acabava formant galàxies en forma el·líptica. Mentre tenen lloc aquestes violentes interaccions, les galàxies no tan sols guanyen massa a mesura que és fusionen, si no que també canvien la seva estructura a través del temps còsmic i per tan canvien de categoría durant aquest procés.

Simulacions fetes per ordinadors, durant la década de 1970, varen preveure que les fusions entre dues galàxies de disc semblants, donarien pas a una galaxia el·líptica, les simulacions preveien que la majoria de les galàxies actuals serien el·líptiques, el que contrasta amb les observacions, que confirmen que el 70% de les galàxies són de disc. De totes maneres, les simulacions més recents suggereixen que les col·lisions també podrien formar galàxies de disc.

En la imatge podem observar 30 fusions de galàxies. Els contorns de les galàxies individuals, indiquen la dispersió del monòxid de carboni, mentre que el color representa el moviment del gas. El gas que s’allunya de nosaltres apareix en color vermell, mentre que el color blau ens indica el que s’acosta. Els contorns, junt amb la transició del vermell al blau, indiquen un disc gasós que està girant respecte al  centre  de la galaxia.

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