Arxiu per Abril, 2014

Es descobreixen nous discos planetaris a l’arxiu del Hubble.

Si amb el Telescopi Espacial Hubble, en el seu momento els astrònoms varen perdre alguna observació, allò no s’ha perdut per sempre. Gràcies a la gran quantitat d’informació emmagatzemada a l’arxiu de dades del Hubble i degut que amb el temps hi ha formes d’anàlisi científica més intel·ligent, poden revisar les observacions existents i fer nous descobriments.

Aquest és el cas de quatre discos de runa planetària descoberts en les imatges de joves estrelles i recuperats per Barbara A. Mikulski, del Archive for Space Telescope (MAST). Aquests discos són la prova reveladora de planetes en formació.

Es tracta d’una anàlisi forense de la historia astronómica, ja que s’han revisat les dades antigues amb noves tècniques de processament d’imatges i d’alguns tenaços astrònoms, com es el cas de Rèmi Soummer del Space Telescope Science Institute de Baltimore.

Les estrelles van ser analitzades inicialment amb el Hubble Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS), a partir dels inusuals senyals de calor obtinguts amb altres telescopis, com l’IRAS (Infrared Astronomical Satellite) i el Spitzer Space Telescope.

Recentment amb les millores de processament d’imatges, incloent els algoritmes utilitzats per el programari de reconeixement facial, Soummer i el seu equip van tornar a analitzar les imatges arxivades. Aquesta vegada, és va poder observar de manera inequívoca, fins i tot  les seves formes.

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Un encontre casual, genera un anell de diamants en el cel.

Utilitzant el telescopi VLT (Very Large Telescope) de l’ESO, situat a Xile, un equip d’astrònoms ha enregistrat aquesta curiosa imatge de la nebulosa planetària PN A66 33, més coneguda amb el nom d’Abell 33. Aquesta bonica bombolla de color blau, s’ha creat durant el procés d’envelliment d’una estrella que ha anat expulsant les seves capes exteriors i que casualment, està alineada amb una estrella que es trova en un primer pla. El resultat, és una espectacular semblança amb un anell de diamants típic de compromís. Aquesta joia cósmica, és inusualment simétrica, ja que apareix amb una perfecta forma circular.

La major part d’estrelles amb masses semblants al Sol, acaben les seves vides com nanes blanques, petits cossos , calents i densos que es refreden molt a poc a poc, al llarg de milers de milions d’anys. Durant el camí cap a la fase final de la seva vida, les estrelles envíen a l’espai les seves atmosferes i generen les nebuloses planetàries; brillants i acolorits núvols de gas que envolten les petites relíquies estel·Lars.

La imatge enregistrada amb el VLT, podem observar una nebulosa perfectament rodona: Abell 33, està situada a uns 2.500 anys llum de la  Terra. Ser tan perfectament esférica, és poc comú en aquests objectes, ja que normalment hi ha alguna cosa que pertorba la simetría, fent que la nebulosa planetària acabi adquirint formes irregulars.

En la imatge del VLT, observem una fulgurant estrella situada en el costat de la nebulosa, formant aquesta curiosa visió. Es tracta tan sols d’una alineació casual; l’estrella anomenada HD 83535, és trova en un primer pla, davant de la nebulosa, a mig camí entre la Terra i Abell 33.

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ALMA contempla la caiguda d’una bola de foc còsmica.

Aquesta bonica imatge, enregistrada durant un timelapse en el Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) és una impressionant fotografía d’ultra definició de l’ESO Ultra HD Expedition. ALMA està situat a 5.000 metres per sobre del nivel del mar, en la remota i desolada regió del Llano de Chajnantor, en els Andes xilens.

En aquesta imatge podem contemplar algunes de les 66 antenes d’alta resolución que formen l’ALMA, estudiant els núvols freds de l’espai interestel·lar i aprodunfint en la recerca del misterios origen de l’univers.

L’espectacular rastre de llum que veiem per sobre d’ALMA, és una estrella fugaç, amb vius colores. Verd maragda, daurat i dèbils tons carmesí, brillen a mesura que el meteor en el seu voraç viatge a travésd el cel i és crema  travessant l’atmosfera terrestre.

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El Hubble estira la cinta mètrica 10 vegades més a l’espai.

Tot i que el Telescopi Espacial Hubble, té 24 anys de presencia a l’espai, els astrònoms segueixen treballant amb imaginació i amb innovadors recursos per aconseguir més prestacions del telescopi. L’última innovadora técnica, és una millora de precisió en la observació del Hubble, fins el punt de fer mesuraments de distancia d’objectes de la nostra Via Làctia, a distancia fins a 10 vegades més enllà de les observades fins ara.

Per aquest motiu, les observacions del Hubble i el seu anàlisi posterior han estat afinats per realizar mesuraments angulars (necessaris per l’estimació de les distàncies) que són tan precisos, com si pogéssim observar a simple vista la matricula d’un cotxe situat a la Lluna !.

Aquesta nova capacitat permet als astrònoms utilizar fins i tot estrelles més allunyades com a criteri per afinar les  seves estimacions. A més, s’espera que produeixi una nova visió de l’energia fosca; una misteriosa substància que està empenyent l’univers a un ritme cada vegada més ràpid.

Com a prova d’aquest concepte de nova precisió de llarg abast, el Hubble va ser utilitzat per mesurar la distancia d’una brillant estrella d’un tipus especial (anomenades variables Cefeides), que es trova a uns 7.500 anys llum de distancia en la constel·lació de l’Auriga. La técnica va funcionar tan bé que s’estan fent mesuraments addicionals per determinar altres remotes Cefeides.

Aquestes mesures s’utilitzen per proporcionar la base més ferma com a base de suport a l’anomenada “escala de distancia cósmica”. Aquesta escala es basa en els mesuraments de les estrelles variables Cefeides, amb unes brillantors intrínsiques conegudes, que han estat utilitzades durant més d’un segle per mesurar la mida de l’univers observable.

Aquesta imatge ens mostra els mesuraments de distancia amb una precisió que utilitza el Telescopi Espacial Hubble, que ha millorat la seva precisió en un factor de 10 vegades.

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Un assassí galàctic en sèrie.

Aquesta nova imatge obtinguda amb el telescopi MPG/ESO de 2,2 metres de diàmetre instal·lat a l’observatori de La Silla de l’ESO, podem observar el contrast entre dues galàxies: NGC 1316 i la seva companya de menor grandària NGC 1317. Les dues galàxies están molt a prop l’una de l’altre, però tenen històries molt diferents. La petita galàxia espiral NGC 1317 ha tingut una vida relativament tranquil·la, però NGC 1316 ha engolit a d’altres galàxies en la seva violenta historia, mostrant algunes de les seves cicatrius de guerra.

Varies característiques a l’estructura de NGC 1316 ens mostren que aquesta galàxia ha viscut un passat turbulent. Per exemple, té diversos rastres de camins de pols poc comuns, incrustats en l’embolcall mñes gran  d’estrelles, així com una població de cúmuls globulars inusualment petits. Això suggereix que hauria pogut engolir anteriorment una galàxia espiral rica en pols, en concret fa uns tres mil milions d’anys aproximadament.

Al voltant de la galàxia també s’observen cues de marees molt dèbils, estrelles arrancades de les seves ubicacions originals i arrossegades a l’espai intergalàctic. Aquestes formes es produeixen per complexos efectes gravitatoris en les òrbites de les estrelles que tenen lloc quan una de les galàxies s’acosta massa. Tots aquests senyals apunten un passat violent durant el qual NGC 1316, és va anexionar altres galàxies i suggereix que aquest comportament encara continua.

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La NASA detecta un oceà interior en un satèl·lit de Saturn.

La sonda espacial Cassini de la NASA i el Deep Space Network, han descobert l’evidència que Enceladus, un satèl·lit de Saturn té un gran oceà subterrani d’aigua líquida, circumstància que pot afavorir la presencia de microorganismes.

Els investigadors van teoritzar la presencia d’un dipòsit interior d’aigua l’any 2005, quan la Cassini va descubrir la sortida de vapor d’aigua i gel a través d’escletxes situades a prop del pol sud d’aquesta lluna. Les noves dades proporcionen els primers mesuraments geofísics de l’estructura interna d’Enceladus.

“L’efecte on varem deduir les variacions de la gravetat és un concepte físic anomenat, Efecte Doppler, el mateix principi que s’utilitza amb un radar per mesurar la velocitat d’un vehicle”, ha comentat en Sami Asmar, membre del Jet Propulsión Laboratory de Pasadena. “A mesura que la sonda espacial vola en dirección a Enceladus, la seva velocitat és pertorbada per un percentatge que depèn de les variacions del  camp gravitacional que estem intentatn mesurar. Veiem el canvi de velocitat com un canvi en la freqüència de ràdio, rebuda a les nostres estacions terrestres a través del sistema solar”.

Els mesuraments gravitacionals suggereixen un gran oceà, probablement regional de prop de 10 quilòmetres de profunditat, sota una capa de gel d’uns 30 a 40 quilòmetres de gruix. L’evidència d’un oceà subsuperficial dóna suport a la inclusió d’Enceladus d’un lloc probable del nostre sistema solar per albergar vida microbiana.

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El Hubble observa que la massa “d’El Gordo”, és més gran del que es pensaven.

El Telescopi Espacial Hubble de la NASA, ha pesat un llunyà i massiu cúmul galàctic , que sens dubte fa honor al seu sobrenom : El Gordo (en español).

Per mesurar la quantitat de la gravetat de la massa d’aquest cúmul que distorsiona les imatges de galàxies situades més enllà, un equip d’astrònoms ha calcular que la seva massa pot ser de tres mil milions de milions de vegades la massa del nostre Sol. Les dades del Hubble ens mostren el cúmul és més o menys un 43 per cent més massiu que les estimacions anteriors, basades en emissions de riags X i estudis dinàmics d’aquest inusual cúmul.

“Ens ha donat una probabilitat encara més gran que això, és un realment un sistema sorprenent d’un univers molt llunyà”, ha comentat el responsable de la recerca, en James Lee, membre de la Universitat de Califòrnia.

Una fracció d’aquesta massa està continguda en diversos centenars de galàxies que resideixen en el cúmul i una fracció més gran està en el gas calent que omple tot el volum d’aquest cúmul. La resta està repartit en la materia fosca, una forma invisible de la materia que correspon a la major part de la massa del nostre univers.

Malgrat que els cúmul galàctics es troben en un univers més proper, com l’anomenat Cúmul Bala, res com això s’havia observat fins ara, quan l’univers tenia aproximadament la meitat de l’edat actual, que és d’uns 13.800 milions d’anys.

L’enorme grandària d’El Gordo, va ser coneguda el mes de gener de 2012. Els astrònoms estimen la seva enorme massa, en relació a les observacions de l’Observatori de raigs X Chandra de la NASA i del Very Large Telescope de l’ESO, situat al Paranal a Xile. Ells van ser capaços d’ajuntar les estimacions de la massa del cúmul en funció dels moviments de les galàxies situades dins del propi cúmul, així com de les altes temperaturas del gas situat en el seu interior.

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Primer sistema d’anells descoberts al voltant d’un asteroide.

Observacions fetes amb nombrosos telescopis d’Amèrica del sud, inclòs l’Observatori de La Silla de l’ESO, han descobert una cosa sorprenent: el llunyà asteroide Chariklo, està envoltat per densos i estrets anells. Es l’objecte més petit que s’ha trobat fins ara que disposa d’aquesta estructura i és el cinquè objecte que orbita al Sol amb aquesta característica (després dels planetes Júpiter, Saturn, Urà i Neptú, que el superen en grandària). L’origen d’aquets anells, és encara un misteri, però poden tenir un origen en una col·lisió, que posteriorment hagi format un disc de runes.

Els anells de Saturn, són sens dubte una de les visions més espectaculars del cel, degut a la seva enorme estructura d’anells, que disposa com la resta dels planetes gegants. Tot i les nombroses recerques, fins ara no s’havia observat anells en objectes més petits en el nostre Sistema Solar. Ara, observacions del llunyà asteroide Chariklo (10199), ens mostra que disposa de dos anells molt prims.

Chariklo és el membre de major grandària d’un tipus d’objectes anomenats “centaures”, on la seva òrbita està situada entre Saturn i Urà, en la perifèria del Sistema Solar. Les previsions indicaven que passaria per davant de l’estrella UCAC4 248-108672, el dia 3 de juny de 2013. L’observació d’aquest fenomen va ser seguit amb telescopis, incloent-hi el telescpi danès de 1,54 metres de diàmetre i el telescopi TRAPPIST, els dos situats a l’Observatori de La Silla. Els astrònoms varen ser capaços d’observar, com l’estrella desapareixia durant uns segons a mesura que Chariklo passava per davant d’ella, observant d’aquesta la manera, la ocultació.

Però, en realitat van observar que uns segons abans i després de l’ocultació principal, van haver dues baixades més de brillantoir i més curtes  . Comparant el que van observar des de observatoris diferents, l’equip de recerca va poder reconstuir , no tant sols la seva forma, si no que també van determinar, l’amplada i orientació i d’altres propietats dels anells descoberts.

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