Arxiu per Setembre, 2011

Telescopis espacials ens mostren els secrets turbulents d’un forat negre.

Un equip internacional d’astrònoms utilitzant cinc telescopis diferents, han descobert l’estructura més espectacular que hi ha al voltant d’un forat negre supermassiu, situat en el centre de la llunyana galàxia Markirian 509. Han loclaitzat una corona molt calenta flotant per sobre del forat negre, així com unes fredes “bales” de gas dins d’un difús núvol de gas calent, accelerant cap a l’exterior a una velocitat de més de 1,6 milions de quilòmetres per hora. Aquesta corona absorbeix i torna a processar la llum ultraviolada del disc d’acreció que envolta el forat negre, energitza i el converteix en radiació X. Aquest descobriment permet als astrònoms donar sentit a les seves investigacions fetes en galàxies actives, que havien estat difícils d’explicar fins ara.

La part més important de la recerca ha estat repetir les observacions en llum visible, de les observacions fetes en raigs X i raigs gamma, fetes amb els observatoris de l’ESA, XMM-Newton i INTEGRAL, que van observar la galàxia Markarian 509 durant sis setmanes. Les observacions van ser realitzades amb l’Observatori de raigs X Chandra i el Telescopi Espacial Hubble. Abans ja s’havia observat també amb observacions més curtes a través del satél·lit Swift de la NASA. Els esforços combinats de tots aquests instruments han donat als astrònoms una visió sense precedents del nucli d’una galàxia activa.

El Cosmic Origins Spectrograph situat a bord del Hubble, ens ha mostrat que la millor línia de gas observada a Markarian 509, compta amb 14 components de velocitats diferents, a diferents llocs de les regions més profundes d’aquesta galàxia. Les dades del Hubble, juntament amb les observacions de raigs X, ens mostren que la majoria del gas visible és a tret des del disc de gas i pols que envolta la regió central que està situada a uns 15 anys llum del forat negre. Aquesta sortida consisteix en denses regions en forma de bales de gas fred que s’incorporen a una regió de gas calent més difús.

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El telescopi Spitzer detecta vapor d’aigua en una súper Terra durant un eclipsi a la seva estrella.

El Telescopi Espacial Spitzer de la NASA, ens mostra nous i sorprenents detalls d’un súper planeta terrestre amb una gran temperatura, anomenat 55 Cancri e. Segons les dades del exoplaneta és menys dens del que és pensava, un descobriment que canvia profundament la imatge que és tenia d’aquest exòtic món. El lloc és una densa roca, cremada per l’escalfor del seu Sol (55 Cancri) i probablement disposa de vapor d’aigua i altres gasos al voltant de la seva superfície.

L’Spitzer va mesurar la quantitat extraordinàriament petita de llum que el planeta bloquejava a la seva estrella quan passava per davant. Aquests mini eclipsis, anomenats trànsits permeten als astrònoms determinar amb precisió la grandària d’un planeta i calcular la seva densitat.

“Aquesta recerca demostra que el “càlid” Spitzer, pot mesurar un eclipsi extremadament feble causat pels trànsits de planetes extrasolars amb molta precisió”, comenta en Brice-Oliver Demory, membre del Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences del MIT.

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Una mirada de reüll.

Aquesta interessant imatge obliqua d’un recent cràter, va ser enregistrada quan la sonda espacial MESSENGER va poder observar aquesta regió del planeta Mercuri. El principal propòsit d’aquesta inclinació va ser la d’analitzar el material reflectant ejectat que va sobresortir del cràter durant l’impacte, les dades van ser enregistrades amb l’instrument Mercuri Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS).

La imatge va ser aconseguida amb el mode d’alta resolució. Aquestes observacions especifiques d’una  petita àrea de la superfície, proporcionen resolucions de fins a 250 metres per píxel, la sonda està confeccionant un mapa del planeta amb una resolució mitja d’un quilòmetre per píxel.

La sonda MESSENGER és la primera en orbitar el planeta Mercuri, amb set instruments de recerca i està descobrint la història i evolució del planeta més interior del Sistema Solar. Durant el primer any de missió, l’instrument MDIS enregistrarà més de 75.000 imatges de la superfície de Mercuri.

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El Herchel ens mostra la història de la pols d’una estrella gegant.

Al voltant de cinc mil milions d’anys, el nostre Sol s’expandirà fins a convertir-se en una gegant vermella, durant aquesta expansió arribarà a empassar-se a la Terra. A continuació començarà a llançar grans quantitats de pols, generant un embolcall circumestel·lar (CSE) que finalment és convertirà en una nebulosa planetària.

Ara unes noves dades de l’Observatori Espacial Herchel de l’ESA, ens proporcionen imatges sense precedents de la complexa estructura externa d’una CSE situada molt a prop.

Formant part d’un programa de recerca a llarg termini que estudia l’envelliment de les estrelles, conegut com Mas loss of Evolved StarS (MESS), l’instrument Array Camera and Spectrometer (PACS) a observat una estrella rica en carboni, anomenada IRC+10216, o CW Leonis.

Classificada en la branca de les Gegants Asimptòtiques (AGB), l’estrella sha convertit en una gegant vermella, alguns milers de vegades més gran que el nostre Sol i que s’està acostant al final de la seva vida.

Les reaccions nuclears en el seu nucli han transformat la major part de l’hidrogen en heli i l’estrella es caracteritza ara per disposar d’un material inert de carboni i oxigen en el seu nucli, envoltat per capes separades, on d’aquesta manera la fusió nuclear es porta a terme (una capa interna d’heli i una capa exterior d’hidrogen). Aquestes capes estan envoltades per un embolcall de forta convecció exterior d’hidrogen.

A mesura que l’estrella evolucioni a través de la fase d’AGB, anirà cremant més i més ràpid, s’anirà refredant i augmentant de grandària, el que permetrà condensar la pols en un embolcall exterior. Al m ateix temps IRC+12016 ha començat a vibrar causant un vent estel·lar, al expulsar la pols i el gas de la superfície a l’espai exterior. Els mesuraments indiquen que la pols s’està expandint cap enfora a una velocitat de 14,5 quilòmetres per segon.

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Nebulosa Lambda Centauri.

Una nova imatge capturada pel Wide Field Imager, un instrument instal·lat  en el telescopi MPG/ESO de 2,2, metres de diàmetre, situat a l’Observatori de La Silla a Xile, ens mostra la nebulosa Lambda Centauri, un brillant núvol d’hidrogen i estrelles acabades de néixer, situat en la constel·lació del Centaure, conegut també com IC 2944. Aquesta nebulosa també rep el sobrenom de a Nebulosa del Pollastre Corredor (Runnin Chicken Nebula)per l’aparença d’un ocell  que s’intueix en la regió més brillant.

La nebulosa està situada a uns 6500 anys llum de la Terra, la qual està plena de brillants estrelles acabades de néixer i formades dins de núvols d’hidrogen que emeten grans quantitats de radiació ultraviolada. Aquesta intensa radiació estimula a la seva vegada el núvol de gas circumdant, fent-lo brillar amb un característic color vermellós. Aquest típic color rogenc, forma part d’altres regions de formació estel·lar com per exemple la nebulosa de la Llacuna.

A més del brillant gas de formació estel·lar a IC 2944, podem observar un seguit de taques negres, opaques al fons de color vermell. Aquests objectes és coneixen com glóbuls de Bok, són obscurs i opacs a la llum. Gràcies a les observacions d’aquests núvols foscos amb telescopis infrarojos, que són capaços d’observar a través de la pols i que han pogut detectar que hi ha estrelles en formació en molts d’aquests núvols.

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Explosions de raigs X a un planeta.

Una estrella situada a prop d’un planeta està enviant una intensitat equivalent a cent mil vegades més radiació X que rep la Terra del Sol.

Aquestes noves dades de l’Observatori de raigs X Chandra de la NASA i el Telescopi Europeu del Sud Very Large Telescope (VLT), indiquen que la radiació d’alta energia evapora al voltant de 5 milions de tones de matèria del planeta cada segon. Aquest resultat dòna una idea de a difícil supervivència d’alguns planetes.

El planeta conegut com CoRoT-2b té una massa equivalent a 3 vegades el planeta Júpiter (Júpiter té una massa equivalent a 1000 vegades la Terra) i que òrbita a la seva estrella a una distància gairebé deu vegades la distància entre la Terra i la Lluna.

El sistema planeta i estrella CoRoT-2, es va descobrir amb la tècnica del trànsit, aquesta estrella està situada a una distància de 880 anys llum de la Terra.

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Observant un canal dins d’un cràter d’impacte.

Aquesta imatge ens mostra l’impacte d’un cràter en la regió oriental d’Elysium Planitia. Aquesta regio és una plana suau situada al llarg de l’equador del planeta Mart, entre les escarpades terres altes del sud i la elevació volcànica d’Elysium.

Les planes han estat repetidament cobertes per fluxos de lava que en omplert la majoria de les zones baixes i que la convertit en una regió plana. El cràter que podem observar estar envoltat per aquest flux de lava més recent, on tota la regió rep el nom d’Athabasca Valles.

Els fluids de lava han entrat dins del cràter a través del punt més baix del seu perimetre, formant un canal. El fons del cràter està cobert per dunes de sorra, de manera que és difícil saber la quantitat de lava vessada dins del cràter. El que encara es conserva es el pas de circulació de la lava, que ha esborrat altres cràters d’Elysium Planitia, que han quedat plens de lava en aquests procés.

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El “Petit Món” del Paranal.

L’apartat de la Fotografia de la Setmana de l’ESO, ens proporciona una imatge diferent, “Un Petit Món”, aquesta fotografia de l’Observatori Paranal de l’ESO, ha estat elaborada per un aficionat a partir del Creative Commons Attribution.

Aquesta interpretació és basa amb una imatge anterior de la Fotografia de la Setmana, que va ser capturada per l’astrònom Alex Parker. L’Observatori Paranal, és el petit món on els astrònoms abandonen la Terra per viatjar a les estrelles, encara que sigui metafòricament.

L’Observatori està situat en les profunditats de l’àrid desert d’Atacama, que ben bé pot semblar un ambient extraterrestre. Lluny de la civilització i de la vida moderna, un lloc on els astrònoms contemplen les meravelles de l’Univers.

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La missió WISE observa jets surtin d’un forat negre.

Els astrònoms que treballen amb el Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) de la NASA, han enregistrat unes dades rares respecte a unes flamarades d’un forat negre i que ens mostren nous detalls en relació als jets que sobresurten d’aquests objectes.

Els científics que estudien aquests jets i també els ambients extrems que existeixen al voltant dels forats negres, han après molt sobre el material que alimenta un forat negre anomenat disc d’acreció i respecte als jets que a través dels estudis en radiació X, gamma i senyals de ràdio. Però les dades clau d’aquests brillants jets, és troben en el seu origen i que han estat difícils d’estudiar. El WISE pot oferir una nova finestra en aquesta recerca a través de les seves observacions en infraroig.

“Imaginem-nos com seria el nostre Sol, si patís rampells sobtats i que pogués arribar a ser tres vegades més brillant en qüestió d’hores i després restornés a la brillantor normal. Aquest tipus de variabilitat, és la que hem observat en aquets jets”, ha comentat en Poshak Gandhi, científic del Japan Aerospace Exploration Agengy (JAXA).

El forat negre anomenat GX 339-4 ja s’havia observat anteriorment. Es troba a més de 20.000 anys llum de nosaltres, a prop del centre de la nostra galàxia. Té una massa d’almenys sis vegades el nostre Sol. En aquest cas, el forat negre òrbita a una estrella companya de la que s’alimenta. La majoria del material de l’estrella companya cau al forat negre, però una part empesa en forma de jet flueix gairebé a la velocitat de la llum.

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Rea il·luminada per la nit.

El terreny del sud de la lluna Rea situada en el planeta Sagturn, la podem observar dèbilment il·luminada per la pròpia llum que reflecteix el planeta, en aquesta imatge capturada per la sonda espacial Cassini des de l’hemisferi fosc del satèl·lit.

La càmera de la sonda estava encarada al costat nocturn de Rea, que té un diàmetre de 1.528 quilòmetres, però que la llum del Sol reflectida en el costat diürn prové del planeta Saturn, que la il·lumina prou com per observar els cràters que podem contemplar en aquesta imatge, que està centrada en els 23 graus de latitud sud i 315 graus de longitud oest.

També podem observar quatre estrelles en el fons de la imatge, que va ser capturada en llum visible per la càmera de gran camp, el passat dia 1 d’agost de 2011. La imatge va ser obtinguda a una distància aproximada de 6.000 quilòmetres, amb un angle de fase entre la sonda, el satèl·lit i el Sol de 113 graus. La escala original de la imatge era de 800 metres per píxel, però aquesta va ser millorada en contrast i va augmentar la resolució en un factor de 1,5.

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