Arxiu per Agost, 2011

Una prova de tinta còsmica.

Si això fos una prova de colors, podria ser una corbata de llaç o corbatí, en funció de la seva personalitat. Un astrònom probablement observaria les restes d’una estrella moribunda escampades per l’espai, i que precisament són això. El Telescopi Espacial Spitzer de la NASA, va enregistrar aquesta imatge infraroja del que coneixem com una nebulosa planetària. Un núvol de material consumit i expulsat per una estrella que és troba al final de la seva vida i que s’anomena nana blanca.

Aquest objecte rep el sobrenom de nebulosa Dumbbell. “Es interessant observar aquest objecte, semblant al pes de gimnàstica, que l’Spitzer ens mostra en comparació amb les imatges òptiques“, comenta en Dr. Joseph Hora, responsable principal de les observacions del Harvard Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics de Cambridge.

En aquesta imatge infraroja, el difús resplendor de color verd, és més brillant en el centre i que ens mostra probablement els àtoms de gas calent, que s’escalfen a partir de la llum ultraviolada que prové de la nana blanca central. Una col·lecció d’estructures omplen la regió central de la nebulosa en color vermell en forma radial i que s’estenen fins més enllà del centre. Els astrònoms creuen que aquestes estructures representen les molècules de gas d’hidrogen barrejades amb elements químics més pesats. Tot i ser descompost per la llum ultraviolada que prové de la nana blanca central, gran part del material molecular pot sobreviure intacte i barrejar-se amb els núvols de gas interestel·lar ajudant d’aquesta manera la formació de noves estrelles.

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Un nou cràter a Tità.

Els cràters d’impacte són poc comuns a Tità, només s’han identificat set, gràcies al Titan Radar Mapper, instal·lat en la sonda Cassini de la NASA. El radar va identificar el vuité, el passat dia 21 de juny de 2011, aquest nou cràter té unes dimensions aproximades de 40 quilòmetres, el qual està envoltat d’una capa continua de material expulsat des de l’interior, i que s’estén fins a uns 15-20 quilòmetres més enllà.

El seu bon estat de conservació, amb les ejeccions de material brillant i les costerudes parets que cauden cap l’interior, ens indiquen que és tracta d’un impacte recent, semblant a altres dos cràters: el Sinap, observat el mes de febrer de 2005 i el Ksa, detectat el setembre de 2006.

Es poden observar unes regions de dunes, amb estructures fosques en la part esquerra de la imatge i que han estat formades pels vents de Tità. Aquestes dunes estan cobrint lentament les regions més brillants que han sorgit del material expulsat de l’interior del cràter.

El Synthetic-aperture Radar (SAD), ha localitzat aquest cràter a 12 graus de latitud nord i 45º de longitud oest. La regió que cobreix aquesta imatge, té unes dimensions de 242 quilòmetres d’alçada per 257 quilòmetres d’ample, amb una resolució de 350 metres per píxel.

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Núvols de formció estel·lar en la Via Làctia.

Aquest diagrama ens mostra els fluxos de gas a gran escala, que es troben situats en el halo de la Via Làctia, així com també, les estrelles més febles i les regions de gas calent. Per aconseguir aquesta informació, s’ha utilitzat el Cosmic Origins Spectrograph i el Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph, instal·lats en el Telescopi Espacial Hubble. La recerca ha estat dirigida per Lehner Nicolas i Howk Chris, membres de la Universitat de Notre Dame. En aquesta recerca han estt capaços de determinar la distància dels núvols ionitzats que disposen d’un ràpid moviment i que són els responsables dels fluxos de gas en el halo de la Via Làctia.

Aquests núvols que fins ara havíen restat invisibles, és van detectar mitjançant la recerca que van detectar els senyals de l’espectre ultraviolat d’aquestes llunyanes estrelles situades en el halo. Els investigadors van descobrir que els núvols amagatzemen el gas que permet a les estrelles formar-se en la nostra galàxia. Aquesta recerca, suggereix que els núvols s’acosten lentament a la nostra galàxia.

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Regions polars de transició

Una recent imatge enregistrada per la sonda Mars Express de l’ESA, ens mostra la regió del pol nord del planeta Mart, durant el sostici d’estiu. Tot el gel de diòxid de carboni s’ha fos, deixant al descobert el brillant gel d’aigua.

La imatge va ser capturada per la High-Resolution Stereo Camera el dia 17 de maig de 2010 i ens mostra una part de la regió polar nord de Mart, durant el seu sostici d’estiu. El sosltici és el dia més llarg i es el començament de l’estiu a l’hemisferi nord del planeta.

L’escut de gel d’aigua, està cobert pel gel de diòxid de carboni a l’hivern i la primavera, però en aquest punt de l’any marcià tot el gel de diòxid de carboni s’escalfa i evapora a l’atmosfera del planeta.

El gel d’aigua només queda present en les brillants àrees blanques en aquesta imatge. A partir d’aquí, grans quantitats de vapor d’aigua s’alliberen a l’atmosfera.

El gel polar segueix les estacions. A l’hivern, part de l’atmosfera torna a condersar-se amb les gebrades i la neu cobreix les regions del nord. Aquests dipòsits de temporada, s’estenen fins a uns 45º de latitud nord, i fins a un metre de gruix.

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El VLT examina els Ulls de la Verge.

El Very Large Telescope de l’ESO ha enregistrat una espectacular imatge d’un parell de boniques galàxies anomenades, els Ulls. La més gran d’aquestes és, NGC 4438 que en un temps passat va ser una galàxia espiral, que s’ha tranformat d’una manera ràpida degut a les col·lisions amb d’altres galàxies durant els últims centenars de milions d’anys.

Els Ulls estan situats a uns 500 milions d’anys llum de nosaltres, en la constel·lació de Virgo i estan separades entre elles per uns 100.000 anys llum. El sobrenom prové de la certa similitud d’aquest parell de galàxies amb dos ovla sresplendint com dos ulls en la foscor.

Encara que els centres de les dues galàxies llueixen d’una manera similar, tot i que el seu entorn és molt diferent. La glàxia situada a baix a la dreta, coneguda com NGC 4435, és compacte i sembla estar desproveïda de gas i pols. En contrast, la galàxia situada a dalt a l’esquerra, NGC 4438 podem observar un camí fosc de pols, just per sobre del seu nucli; també podem observar joves estrelles a l’esquerra del nucli i gas que s’estén fins als límits de la imatge.

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Uns científics observen en detall com un forat negre es menja una estrella.

Dos estudis que apareixen publicats a l’edició del 25 d’agost de la revista Nature, proporcionen nous coneixements respecte  “l’accident còsmic”, que va fer arribar raigs X a la Terra el passat mes de març. El satèl·lit Swift de la NASA, va ser el primer en alertar als astrònoms d’una intensa i inusual flamarada d’alta energia d’una font que provenia de la constel·lació de Draco.

“Increïblement aquesta font, segueix produint raigs X i pot romandre prou brillant com per que el Swift el pugui observar fins el proper any”, ha comentat en David Burrows, professor d’astronomia de la Penn State University. “Es comporta d’una manera diferent del que havíem observat fins ara”.

Els astrònoms a’han van adonar de la font, coneguda amb el nom de Swift J644+57, el qual va resultar un esdeveniment realment extraordinari, el despertar d’un forat negre inactiu, d’una llunyana gàlàxia i que segurament estirava la matèria d’una estrella propera. La galàxia està tant lluny, que la seva llum ha trigat 3.900 milions d’anys en arribar a la Terra.

El segon estudi ha estt dirigit per Ashley Zauderer, doctorat a la Havard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics de Cambridge, el qual va estudiar aquesta font amb nombrosos observatoris terrestres de ràdio, incloent-hi el National Radio Astronomy Observatory Expander Very Large Array (AVLA) de Socorro a New Mexico.

La majoria de les galàxies, inclosa la nostra contenen un forat negre gegant de la massa de milions de vegades el nostre Sol. D’acrd amb els nous estudis, el forat negre allotjat a Swidt J1644+57, pot ser el doble de la massa del forat negre de la nostra galàxia: uns quatre milions de masses solars. Degut que el gas que cau a l’estrella que gira al voltant del forat negre, aquest s’escalfa ràpidament a temperatures de milions de graus.

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Nana Y.

Aquesta concepció artística ens il·lustra un tipus de “nana Y”. Aquestes nanes són els cossos estel·lars més freds coneguts fins ara, amb temperatures que poden arribar a ser més fredes que el d’un cos humà. El Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) de la NASA, va descobrir aquests objectes difícils d’observar degut a la seva baixa temperatura, gràcies als detectors infrarojos. El telescopi ha localitzat fins ara sis nanes, amb temperatures atmosfèriques que oscil·len entre els 175 i 25 graus Celsius.

Aquestes nanes prtanyen a una família de les nanes marrons. Les nanes marrons comencen la seva vida com estrelles, però mai arriben a acumular suficient massa com per fusionar àtoms de manera constant en els seus nuclis i daquesta manera brillar com estrelles com el nostre Sol. En canvi, aquests objectes s’esvaeixen amb el temps emetent llum en longituds d’ona infraroja.

El WISE ha estat capaç de recollir el feble resplendor de sis nanes i que representen les més fredes observades fins ara en la categoria de nanes marrons i que per tant estant situades al final de la classificació estel·lar. Aquesta classificació descriu que totes les temperatures comencen amb les estrelles més calentes “O” i que acaba amb les nanes més fredes. Aquest esquema inclou les categories: O, B, A, F, G, K, M, L, T i Y. El nostre Sol pertany a la categoria G. Les estrelles del tipus M, són més fredes que el nostre Sol i de color vermellós. Mentre que les estrelles del tipus O i K, és consideren una barreja entre estrelles i nanes marrons, les del tipus T i Y són pròpiament nanes marrons.

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Un misteriós púlsar amb cua.

Una estrella de neutrons en rotació, sembla estar lligada la una misteriosa cua (o així ho sembla). Els astrònoms que treballen amb l’Observatori de raigs X Chandra de la NASA, han observat aquest púlar anomenat PSR J0357 3205 (PSR J0357 per abreujar) i que, pel que sembla té una llarga i brillant cua de raigs X que surt d’aquest objecte.

Aquesta imatge, està composta amb les dades del Chandra en color blau i del Digital Sky Survey en color groc. La posició del púlsar a l’extrem superior, el podem localitzar en superposar el ratolí sobre de la imatge. Les dues fonts lluminoses situades a prop de l’extrem inferior esquerra de la cua, és considera que són dos objectes situats fora de la nostra galàxia.

PSR J037 va ser descobert pel Telescopi Espacial Fermi de Raigs Gamma, l’any 2009. Els astrònoms calculen que el púlsar està situat a uns 1.600 anys llum de nosaltres, amb una edat aproximada de 500.000 anys.

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Coves i cràters.

A principis d’aquest any, l’equip de recerca de la càmera CTX, va observar un cràter situat a prop del volcà Mons Pavonis, que conté una taca fosca en el seu interior. Amb més precisió la càmera HiRISE, ha aconseguit observar aquesta regió amb aquestes característiques geològiques tan inusuals.

La taca fosca va resultar ser una “lluerna”, una obertura d’una cavrna subterrània d’uns 35 metres de diàmetre. Coves com aquestes és formen sovint en regions volcàniques, quan el fluxos de lava solidificada a la part superior, segueixen fluint per sota de la seva escorça sòlida. Aquest riu de lava pot drenar el tub per on abans fluia la lava. Podem calcular l’ombra d’aquesta estructura per deduïr que la fossa té una produnditat d’uns 20 metres.

L’origen del forat més gran que aquest segueix senr encara un misteri. A finals d’aquest any la càmera HiRISE, podrà aconseguir una segona imatge de la mateixa regió per tal de generar una imatge estèreo. Amb aquesta informació, segurament podrem disposar de les dades necessàries per conèixer el seu origen.

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Una taca gegant espacial que brilla des de l’interior.

Observacions fetes amb el Very Large Telescope de l’ESO, han aclarit el possible origen d’una rar i enorme núvol de gas, resplendint en un Univers primitiu. Les observacions ens mostren per primera vegada com aquesta taca gegant, anomenada “taca Lyman-alfa”, com un dels objectes individuals més grans que és coneixen i que deu estar alimentat per les galàxies situades en el seu interior.

Aquestes enormes i lluminoses estructures s’observen normalment en regions situades en un Univers primitiu, on la matèria es troba concentrada. L’equip va descobrir que la llum que prové d’aquestes taques està polaritzada. En la nostra vida quotidiana, la llum polaritzada per exemple, s’utilitza per generar efectes en 3D en el cinema. Aquesta és la primera vegada que és descobreix llum polaritzada en una taca Lyman-alfa, aquest descobriment pot ajudar a resoldre el misteri de com brillen aquestes taques.

Les taques Lyman-alfa, són alguns dels objectes més grans de l’Univers: núvols gegants de gas d’hidrogen que poden tenir grandàries de fins alguns centenars de milers d’anys llum (algunes vegades més gran que la nostra Via Làctia). S’acostumen a localitzar a grans distàncies, de manera que les observem tal com eren quan  l’Univers tenia sols alguns milions d’anys d’existència. Per tant, són importants pel coneixement de com és van formar i evolucionar les galàxies en un Univers primitiu. De totes maneres, la font de la seva brillantor és un dels principals misteris encara sense resoldre.

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