Arxiu per Febrer, 2007

Detectada per primera vegada raigs X, en la col·lisió d’un vent estel·lar.

En una cantonada de NGC 346, un cúmul d’estrelles situat en el Petit Núvol de Magallaes (una regió-satèl·lit  de la nostra galàxia), hi ha una col·lisió sorprenent entre dues estrelles. Bé, no entre les mateixes estrelles, sinó amb els forts vents que estan expulsant.

Les dues estrelles conegudes col·lectivament amb la referència HD 5980. Són un sistema binari d’estrelles separades només per 90 milions de quilòmetres, això és aproximadament la meitat de la distància des de la Terra al Sol.

Una d’aquestes estrelles té una massa equivalent a 50 vegades la del Sol, mentre que l’altre ho és en unes 30 vegades. Les dues estan emetent més d’un milió de vegades l’energia que genera el Sol.

Ambdues estrelles produeixen uns vents extremadament forts, s’ha calculat que cada mes, la massa de les seves partícules equivalent a la massa total de la Terra. Degut a la proximitat de les estrelles, es produeix una ona de xoc entre els seus vents, i que l’Observatori de Raig X Newton XMM, ha pogut observar en forma d’energia de raigx X, trobant que aquesta és 10 vegades superior al total de l’energia que emet el Sol.

ngc-346.jpg

més informació a, http://www.esa.int/esaCP/SEMPYIO2UXE_index_0.html

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Recerca de vida a Europa.

Recentment s’informava, d’una proposta per que un vehicle espacial tornés al satèl·lit de Júpiter, Europa per determinar si realment sota de la closca glacial, hi ha un oceà líquid d’aigua. Aquesta proposta, està recolzada per un grup de científics,  que fan una campanya  per estudiar i analitzar la possibilitat de trobar vida en un altre cos del Sistema solar que no sigui la Terra.

Aquest grup de científics es varen trobar en la reunió anual de American Association for the Advancement of Science a San Francisco, per parlar del interés sobre la recerca del satèl·lit Europa. De fet, estudiant la vida a l’àrtic i l’antàrtida, els científics han descobert vida en alguns dels llocs més extrems i inhospitalaris de la Terra, trobant vida a sota de centenars de metres de gel.

A Europa, la integració gravitacional amb Júpiter genera escletxes a la seva superfície glacial, on l’aigua pot aflorar i tot seguit congelar-se formant llacs. El futur vehicle espacial hauria d’escorcollar aquestes regions a la recerca d’un possible rastre de vida. Els organismes podrien estar ben bé sota de l’escorça gelada, arrupits al voltant d’aquestes escletxes com si fossin respiradors tèrmics, tal com s’observen en cirumstàncies semblants a la Terra.

Sí les agencies espacials incolucrades comencen a plantejar-se aquest projecte, es podria disposar d’una sonda en la superfície d’Europa d’aquí a 15 anys.

europa.jpg

més informació a, http://www.berkeley.edu/news/media/releases/2007/02/22_europa.shtml

2 comentaris

Els fòssils de Mart.

En lloc de cercar restes de vida actual a Mart, Jack Farmer professor de Arizona State Univrsity, pensa que les futures missions al planeta vermell, haurien de buscar fòssils. De fet, pensa que podrien ser molt més fàcils de trobar.

Jack Farmer, professor  de geologia presentava el seu treball, a la última reunió anual de American Association for theAdvance of Cience celebrada a San Francisco. Creu que els ròvers (vehicles autònoms que treballan a Mart) que arribin al planeta vermell, enlloc de cerca exobiologia, caldria pensa que seria més fàcil la exopalenontologia.

El problema de cercar vida ara mateix, exigeix la presència d’aigua liquida. Segons les últimes informacions això és improbable. En el supòsit que hi hagués aigua, hauria de ser subterrània, o sota els gruixuts gels d’alguns cràters.

Ara bé, els bacteris fossilitzats podrien estar per sobre la superfície del planeta, esperant que la sort d’algun ròver el recollís per analitzar-lo. Només cal trobar un lloc on va existir antigament aigua durant un llarg període, per aquesta missió els rovers tindrien que estar proveïts amb microscopis extremadament sensibles, i laboratoris de química orgànica per analitzar els possibles restes de vida.

2007-0221bacteria.jpg

En aquesta imatge podrem apreciar restes fossilitzades de Calothrix, un bacteri comú en les fonts termals del Parc Yellowstone National, les podem observar com unes branques d’un arbust. Les “branques” són les beines externes dels bacteris, que s’han amagat completament en el òpal, un mineral que freqüentment es cristal·litza en aquestes fonts termals. El camp de visió de la fotografia és de 2 mil·límetres d’ampla.

 

Més informació a, http://www.asu.edu/news/stories/200702/20070216_AAAS_Farmer.htm

1 comentari

La nebulosa planetària NGC 2440.

Aquesta imatge pressa pel Telescopi Espacial Hubble podem observar l’últim sospir d’una estrella semblant al Sol. L’estrella està acabant la seva vida,  expulsant els seus estrats exteriors de gas a capes com si es tractes d’una “ceba” fins arribar al mateix nucli estel·lar.

La llum ultraviolada que surt de l’estrella fa brillar intensament el material expulsat. La responsable, és una nana blanca que resta en el centre d’aquesta nebulosa. Quan el nostre Sol s’apagui d’aquí a uns 5.000 milions d’anys, seguirà els mateixos passos de l’estrella, que ara observem els seus romanents.

La nostra Via Làctia, està farcida d’aquestes relíquies, anomenades nebuloses planetàries. Tot i el seu nom, aquestes no tene res a veure amb la formació de planetes. En els segles divuit i dinou, els astrònoms quan observaven un d’aquests objectes amb els seus rudimentaris telescopis, els confonien amb discos protoplanetaris, semblants a les observacions que llavors feien dels planetes Urà, o Neptú.

La nebulosa planetària que observem en aquesta fotografia, s’anomena NGC 2440. La nana blanca, està just en el centre, amb una temperatura superficial de les més calentes que és coneix, de més de 200.000º.

La nebulosa és molt rica en núvols de pols, alguns dels quals formen estries fosques i llargues, que s’allunyen de l’estrella. NGC 2440 està situada a uns 4.000 anys llum de nosaltres, en direcció a la constel·lació de Puppis.

ngc-2440.jpg

més informació a, http://www.spacetelescope.org/news/html/heic0703.html

1 comentari

Sorpreses en el Pol Sud del Sol.

Encara que molt a prop del seu mínim del cicle de taques d’onze anys, el Sol ens mostra que és capaç de prouir una sèrie d’explosions extremadament energètiques, tal com ens mostra aquesta foto-muntatge pressa per la sonda espacial Ulysses, un projecte conjunt de la ESA (Agencia Espacial Europea) i la NASA.

Les circumval·lacions de la sonda pel pol sud del Sol (efectuada els anys 1994 i 2000) ha produït alguna sorpresa.

Les tempestes solars, que és limitaven a les regions equatorials produïen esclats molt intensos de radiacions de partícules, que eren observats clarament pels satèl·lits en òrbita a la Terra. Sorprenentment, els augments similars en radiació eren detectats pels instruments a bord de la Ulysses, tot i que era tres vegades més lluny que la Terra, i estava situat sobre el pol sud del Sol.

Els científics estan ocupats intentant entendre com hi ha partícules carregades elèctricament en les zones polars de l’estrella.

Segons Marsden investigadors del projecte Ulysses, “Les partícules carregades han de seguir les línies del camp magnètic del Sol, que a prop del seu mínim solar, hauria de fer molt més difícil la seva detecció en aquestes latituds”.

ulysses003.jpg

més informació a, http://www.ajlagarriga.es/areesAj.php

1 comentari

Eclipsi Total de Lluna del 3 de març.

La nit del proper dissabte 3 de març, hi haurà un eclipsi total de Lluna visible des d’Europa, Africa i part d’America. La observació d’aquest eclipsi serà una oportunitat molt especial de gaudir-lo amb unes immillorables condicions, ja que el començament de la fase de totalitat serà a una hora raonable, i sobretot per que caurà en la nit de de dissabte.

eclipsi-lluna1.jpg

Per trobar unes condicions semblants tindrem que esperar-nos al eclipsi del dia 20 de desembre de 2029. A continuació publiquem les hores de les diferents fases:

- Primer contacte amb l’ombra 3 de març…………………………………..   21h 29m 58s  T.U.

- Inici fase de totalitat 3 març…………………………………………………   22h 43m 44s  T.U.

- Màxim de l’eclipsi 3 març …………………………………………………….   23h 20m 50s  T.U.

- Final fase totalitat 3 març …………………………………………………..    23h 57m 55s  T.U.

- Últim contacte ombra 4 març ………………………………………………    01h 11m 40s  T.U.

horari-eclipsi.jpg

Durant la fase de totalitat la Lluna no desapareix, si no que queda parcialment il·luminada per una llum de color vermellosa. No tots els eclipsis són iguals, el color de la totalitat pot variar del quasi marró més fosc, al taronja clar o lleugerament grogent. La causa d’aquests canvis en la coloració de la fase de totalitat, es com a conseqüència que els raigs de llum procedents del Sol passen per l’atmosfera terrestre, i és refracten arribant una part al conus fosc per on viatja la Lluna eclipsada.

eclipsi-lluna.jpg

Un eclipsi de Lluna, potser és un dels esdeveniments astronòmics més senzills de enregistrar, ja sigui amb càmeres convencionals amb rodet de pel·lícula fotogràfica, o a través de càmeres digitals. Per disposar d’una grandària suficient per observar amb detall el disc de la Lluna, ens convindria un teleobjectiu, o millor un telescopi per tal d’aconseguir una bona qualitat d’imatge. Per aquest motiu seria es convenient disposar de teleobjectius a partir de 400 mm de distància focal, si disposem d’un telescopi, fàcilment ja tindrem aquesta focal. Si volem fotografiar amb telescopis, és important no sobrepassar els 2.000 mil·límetres de focal per poder encabir tot el disc lunar dins del format fotogràfic, encara que cal tenir present que si ho fem amb una càmera digital, augmentarem el factor focal amb un factor de 1,5 aproximadament.

Pel que fa als temps d’exposició, podrem refiar-nos del fotòmetre de la mateixa càmera, encara que a nivell d’orientació amb una sensibilitat de ISO 200, les exposicions serien les següents:

- Lluna plena ……………………….. 1/2000 de segon.

- Fase parcial 1/4 tapat……………  1/500 de segon.

- Fase parcial 1/2 tapat……………  1/250 de segon.

- Fase parcial 3/4 tapat …………..  1/125 de segon.

- Fase total, depenent del grau de foscor entre 1 i 60 segons.

 

L’ajuntament de La Garriga organitza una observació pública d’aquest eclipsi total de Lluna a Can Poi, un espai amb bona visibilitat per gaudir d’aquest espectacle. Univers quark col·labora amb els seus instruments per observar amb tota comoditat aquest esdeveniment.

eclipsi001.jpg

més informació a, http://www.ajlagarriga.es/areesAj.php

   
   
   
   
   
1 comentari

Ocultació de les Pleiades, per la Lluna.

La nit del 23 al 24 de febrer (nit de divendres) és produirà una ocultació del cúmul d’estrelles de les Pleiades M-45, per la Lluna. Serà un esdeveniment que és podrà observar amb comoditat des de el nostre país.

És una bona oportunitat per observar a la vegada aquests dos objectes astronòmics tant espectaculars. La seva observació és pot fer amb instruments a pocs augments, els millors per observar en aquest cas, son els prismàtics.

Podeu fer fotografia amb teleobjectiu, i si feu una sèrie regular cada 10 minuts aproximadament, obtindreu una seqüència curiosa.

L’ocultació de les Pleiades comença aproximadament a les 11 de la nit, i s’acaba a les 2 de la matinada del dissabte 24 de febrer.

pleyades-lluna.jpg

imatge de Starry Night Pro

1 comentari

La Lluna en quart creixent.

El proper dia 24 d’aquest mes, la Lluna estarà en fase de quart creixent, els dies anteriors i posteriors són els millors per programar una observació astronòmica d’aquest astre.

 

lluna1.jpg

 

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Observació de la Nova Scorpii 2007.

Tot i que les condicions meteorològiques no eren les més favorables, un considerable grau de humitat, llum ambient important degut a que faltaven uns 50 minuts per la sortida del Sol. Mostrem aquesta fotografia on podem apreciar dèbilment la Nova Scorpii 2007.

La fotografia esta pressa la matinada del 20 de febrer, amb un objectiu de 80 mm de distància focal, amb pel·lícula ISO 200, i una exposició sense seguiment de 30 segons.

novascorpii.jpg

Fotografia d’Univers quark.

1 comentari

Els Pilars de la Creació.

Probablement la fotografia més famosa que a pres el Telescopi Espacial Hubble de la NASA, és la dels “Pilars de la Creació”; una regió de formació estel·lar dins de la Nebulosa de l’Àliga (M-16). Els astrònoms han volgut sabet on s’està generant realment estrelles dins de la nebulosa.

Per saber això, l’Observatori de Raig X Chandra, ha observat també aquesta regió, i està ajudant a respondre aquesta pregunta. La fotografia adjunta és una combinació entre la fotografia original del Hubble, superposada amb les dades del Chandra.

Els punts brillants de la fotografia són fonts de raig X, dins d’estrelles.

Si ens adonem, veurem que hi ha moltes fonts de raig X al voltant de la nebulosa, però gairebé cap dins dels pilars mateixos. Què està passant?. És possible que no hi hagi estrelles allà dintre, encara que les observacions infraroges han trobat objectes estel·lars joves, incloent-hi quatre amb estructura estel·lar. Una altra possibilitat, és que les estrelles de dins dels pilars són encara massa joves per aconseguir generar raig X.

m16.jpg

més informació a, http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2007/m16/

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